Manga is the Japanese word for comics (sometimes called comics) and print cartoons. In their modern form, manga date from shortly after World War II but have a long, complex history in earlier Japanese art.
In Japan, manga are widely read by people of all ages. A broad range of subjects and topics occur in manga, including action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business and commerce, among others.
Manga are typically printed in black-and-white,although some full-color manga exist (e.g. Colorful manga, not the anime series). If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run,although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films (e.g. Star Wars).
Manga as a term outside of Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan.However, manga and manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in South Korea ("manhwa") and in the People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong ("manhua"). In France, "la nouvelle manga" is a form of bande dessinée drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. In the U.S., manga-like comics are called Amerimanga, world manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga).
History of Manga
Manga means a "whimsical pictures".
In 1798,Santo Kyoden's picturebook.
In 1814,Aikawa Minwa's "Mangga Hyakujo" and the celebrated Hokusai Mangga.The first user of the word in modern usage is Rakuten Kitazawa.
In 1945 - 1952,the first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).
In 1952 - 1960,there was an explosion of artistic creativity in this period from manga artists
such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san) and celebrated the Kami-Shibai Story Teller.
In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique (right), the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots.Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.
Between 1950 - 1969,increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls.
In 1969 a group of female manga artists later called the Year 24 Group (also known as
Magnificient 24s) made their shōjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the Japanese name for 1949, when many of these artists were born). The group included Hagio Moto,Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya and Ryoko Yamagishi.
Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese,redikomi, and josei ).In modern shojo manga romance, love is a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self realization such as Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon (Bishojo Senshi Sera Mun: "Pretty Girl Soldier Sailor Moon", which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.It also developed the notion of teams (sentai) of girls working together).
Manga for male readers can be characterized by the age of its intended audience: boys up to 18 years old (shonen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga),as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality.
From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots and space travel, and heroic action-adventure. Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular.
The role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (bishojo) such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where the hero is surrounded by such girls and women, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team,or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sento bishojo).
After the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in English translations in Japan. These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage and sadomasochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape.
In 1959-1962, Gekiga is a style of drawing is emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day- in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. It's written by Sampei Shirato's.
In the late 1950s and 1960s, the Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeicho) partly from left-wing student and working class political activism and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.